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Study Guide for the Second Exam

HUM 121-0H1 and PHL 231-0H1


  1. For the following works of art, you must know the name of the work and the name of the artist or architect:

Watteau….Departure from Cythera

Boucher….Nude on a Sofa

Hogarth, Morning Party

David…..The Death of Socrates, Death of Marat

Soufflot…….The Pantheon


Constable…..The Hay Wain

Turner…….The Slave Ship

Friedrich…….Monk by the Sea

Goya…..The Execution of the Third of May, 1808

Gericault…..The Raft of the “Medusa”

Delacroix…..Massacre at Chios, Liberty Leading the People

            Barry and Pugin….The Houses of Parliament

            Ingres…The Turkish Bath

            Daumier…..The Third-Class Carriage

            Millet….The Gleaners


            Brady….Abraham Lincoln


Images will be projected on the screen for you to identify.  There will also be several questions in which you will be asked to identify the period or style.  You should be able, for example, to identify a work by Watteau as an example of the rococo. 


  1. In addition to the artists and architects listed above, you should be able to identify the following people:  Copernicus, Newton, Galileo, Bacon, Voltaire, Diderot, Montequieu, Rousseau, Smith, Hume, Franklin, Jefferson, Wollstonecraft, Haydn, Mozart, Goethe, Byron, Keats, Wordsworth, Mary Shelley, Kant, Hegel, Beethoven, Darwin, Pasteur, Linnaeus, Mendeleev, Hugo, Sand, Charlotte Bronte, Thoreau, Bentham, Mill, Balzac, Flaubert, Dickens, Eliot, Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, Douglas, Verdi, Wagner, and Brahms.  On the exam, you will be asked to match the people with brief descriptions.

  2. You should know the meaning of important cultural and religious terms such as rationalism, empiricism, deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, heliocentrism, Scientific Revolution, social contract, Enlightenment, philosophes, deism, pietism, Methodism, physiocrats, rococo, neoclassicism, romanticism, the sublime, skepticism, idealism, liberalism, utilitarianism, utopian socialism, higher criticism, evolution, realism, transcendentalism, symphony, chamber work, opera, aria, libretto, leitmotif.

  3. You do not have to know all the historical details described in the text.  However, you should be acquainted with the basic historical and economic facts emphasized during class.  For example, you should know something about the changing economies of Europe, the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, the significance of Napoleon, the struggles for suffrage and reform, the unification of Germany and Italy,  the new developments in European imperialism (especially as it affected India, China, and Vietnam), and the struggle against slavery.

  4. Be sure to review all the primary source material that has been assigned both from the Reader and from the Web.  Reviewing the Reading Notes that were distributed in class and are available on the Web should be of great assistance to you. When you are writing the essay portion of this exam you will need to draw on a detailed knowledge of the texts and arguments.


  1. You will be asked to write an essay on one of the following questions:

    1. Compare two or three works of art of different styles that incorporate elements of social criticism.   Evaluate them in terms of their aesthetic merits and the effectiveness of their social critique. 

    2. Compose a thesis that examines two of Philo's criticisms of Cleanthes' argument for God's existence and nature. You should summarize Cleanthes' argument and the two criticisms--but, your essay should also evaluate the relative merits of the argument and criticisms.

    3. Compose and defend a thesis that relates Marx's conception of alienation to the implicit criticism of capitalism and industrial society that we find in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and in  Dickens' Hard Times. (Part of your essay should be an explanation of Marx's concept of alienation.)

    4. It is clear that from 1700-1870 new conceptions about God and spirituality emerged among European and American intellectuals.  Write an essay in which you defend an interesting thesis about these developments.  Your essay should make reference to works of philosophy, literature, and science.

    5. Critically examine Locke's justification of revolutionary activity in certain circumstances.  Evaluate whether he effectively answers Hobbes' objections to revolutionary activity.

Author: Hollace Graff
Oakton Community College
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