Human Anatomy and Physiology II

I.     Course Prefix/Number: BIO 232

       Course Name: Human Anatomy and Physiology II

       Credits: 4 (3 lecture; 3 lab)

II.    Prerequisite

BIO 231 with a minimum grade of C.

III.   Course (Catalog) Description

Laboratory course continues BIO 231. Content includes structure and function of central nervous system and special senses, circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, endocrine and reproductive systems. Cadavers and other appropriate specimens used. Second of two-part sequence. Intended primarily for student in allied health fields.

IV.   Learning Objectives

  1. Identify principle brain structures and explain their main functions.
  2. Compare the ways in which various structures of the CNS communicate with one another.
  3. Correlate the anatomy of the special senses to their physiological mechanisms.
  4. Examine the physiology of blood including blood types and hemostasis.
  5. Correlate the conduction of an action potential through the heart with major components of an EKG.
  6. Analyze the events in the cardiac cycle as they relate to blood flow through the heart.
  7. Compare the mechanisms that regulate blood pressure.
  8. Compare vessels of circulation by anatomy and physiology.
  9. Analyze the events involved in inspiration and expiration.
  10. Associate gas exchange and gas transportation to the major physiological principles of blood.
  11. Summarize carbohydrate, lipid and protein digestion and absorption.
  12. Compare the anatomy and physiology of accessory digestive organs.
  13. Associate the hormones of the endocrine glands to their actions.
  14. Compare the mechanisms involved in regulation of hormone secretion.
  15. Examine the process of urine formation and urine excretion.
  16. Analyze the role of the urinary and respiratory systems in regulating blood and urine pH.
  17. Compare the events and hormonal control of the ovarian and menstrual cycles.
  18. Evaluate spermatogenesis.

Learning Outcomes

By the completion of your biology courses at Oakton, you will have gained the experience to.....

  1. Think critically – identify, define, analyze, interpret, and evaluate ideas, concepts, information, problems, solutions, and consequences. This includes the ability to compute and comprehend quantitative information and to engage in the scientific process.
  2. Communicate – communicate ideas, concepts, and information through written and oral means. Collaborate with people of diverse backgrounds and abilities.
  3. Demonstrate literacy – demonstrate the ability to read critically within content areas. Use technology to locate, evaluate, and communicate data, information, ideas, and concepts. Assess, critique, and select from a variety of information resources.
  4. Demonstrate responsibility – demonstrate an understanding of personal responsibility and ethical behavior in one’s own academic and civic life.

V.    Academic Integrity and Student Conduct

Students and employees at Oakton Community College are required to demonstrate academic integrity and follow Oakton's Code of Academic Conduct. This code prohibits:

• cheating,
• plagiarism (turning in work not written by you, or lacking proper citation),
• falsification and fabrication (lying or distorting the truth),
• helping others to cheat,
• unauthorized changes on official documents,
• pretending to be someone else or having someone else pretend to be you,
• making or accepting bribes, special favors, or threats, and
• any other behavior that violates academic integrity.

There are serious consequences to violations of the academic integrity policy. Oakton's policies and procedures provide students a fair hearing if a complaint is made against you. If you are found to have violated the policy, the minimum penalty is failure on the assignment and, a disciplinary record will be established and kept on file in the office of the Vice President for Student Affairs for a period of 3 years.

Please review the Code of Academic Conduct and the Code of Student Conduct, both located online at

VI.   Sequence of Topics


BIO 132 Course Content: Required Topics: these are topics that all A&P faculty must discuss. You may decide to go in more depth or include additional topics as you wish.

Note: some detailed topics may fall into more than one body system and may be presented in more than one body system.

  1. Correlate the mechanisms of homeostasis to maintenance of body functions and correction of body functions (corresponds to learning objectives 1-18)
  2. Central Nervous System (corresponds to learning objectives 1 and 2)
    1. Locate principal brain structures
      1. Gross surface anatomy of brain
      2. Midsagittal section gross anatomy of brain
    2. Meninges anatomy and physiology
    3. Cerebrospinal fluid production and circulation
    4. Examine the gray and white matter distribution in the cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and brainstem
    5. Discuss functions and interrelationships of the lobes and basal ganglia of the cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum and brainstem
    6. Discuss relationship between spinal cord tracts, the brain and peripheral tissues
  3. Sensory Organs (corresponds to learning objective 3)
    1. Locate principal structures of the eye and ear
      1. External and internal structures of eye
      2. External and internal structures of ear
    2. Perform basic functional tests of the eye and ear
    3. Discuss major functions of principal eye and ear structures
      1. Focusing of images on retina
      2. Refraction
      3. Accomodation
      4. Photoreceptors
      5. Optional: Basic rhodopsin cycle
      6. Dark and light adaptation
      7. Physiology of hearing
      8. Physiology of equilibrium and balance
      9. Overview of the chemical senses of taste and smell
    4. Map the visual and hearing pathways
    5. Associate olfactory system structures to their functions
  4. Cardiovascular System: Blood (corresponds to learning objective 4)
    1. Analyze ABO and Rh blood types and blood transfusions
    2. Analyze the sequence of events involved in hemostasis
    3. Examine blood composition
    4. Hemopoiesis
  5. Cardiovascular System: Heart and Cardiovascular Dynamics (corresponds to learning objectives 5-7, 16)
    1. Compare autorhythmic fibers of the cardiac conduction system by location and function
    2. Locate the major structures of the heart and the heart’s respective blood vessels on models, cadavers, and sheep heart
    3. Trace blood flow through heart
    4. Correlate systemic and arterial circulation to heart pressure changes, heart valve actions and heart sounds
    5. Differentiate between systolic and diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressures
    6. Discuss the baroreceptor (pressoreceptor) and chemoreceptor reflexes
    7. Compare hormones that regulate blood pressure
      1. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
      2. ADH (vasopressin)
      3. Catecholamines
      4. Atrial natriuretic peptide
    8. Examine the role of the ANS on blood pressure
    9. Correlate Frank Starlings Law, venous return, systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output to changes in blood pressure
    10. Compare factors that regulate stroke volume (preload, contractility, afterload) and heart rate
    11. Evaluate the relationship between action potential conduction through the heart and an EKG wave
  6. Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels (corresponds to learning objective 8)
    1. Compare structure and function of arterial, venous and capillary systems
    2. Relate role of lymphatic system to circulation
    3. Identify major blood vessels on cadavers/models
    4. Map blood flow through major blood vessels
    5. Discuss the pressures that cause movement of fluids between capillaries and interstitial fluid (hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures)
    6. Map fetal circulation
    7. Compare pulmonary, systemic and hepatic portal circulations
  7. Respiratory System (corresponds to learning objectives 9 and 10)
    1. Compare gross and microscopic anatomy of the structures of the respiratory tract
    2. Trace the passage of air through the respiratory system
    3. Differentiate between the respiratory structures of the conducting and respiratory divisions
    4. Compare changes in lung volume as they correlate to inspiration and expiration
    5. Discuss the negative feedback loops that regulate respiration
      1. Respiratory centers
      2. Hering-Breuer reflex
      3. Central and peripheral chemoreceptors
    6. Illustrate internal and external respiration
    7. Analyze the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve and the factors that influence the curve
    8. Discuss the role of surfactant in respiration
    9. Identify factors involved in acid-base balance
      1. Protein buffer system
      2. Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
      3. Hyperventilation and hypoventilation
      4. Kidney excretion of H+ and reabsorption of HCO3-
      5. Renal buffers
    10. Compare forms of alkalosis and acidosis
  8. Digestive System (corresponds to learning objectives 11 and 12)
    1. Identify the anatomical components of the digestive tract
    2. Compare gross and microscopic anatomy of the structures of the digestive tract
    3. Correlate the anatomy of digestive tract structures to their respective functions
    4. Compare the types of motility throughout the digestive tract
    5. Examine hormonal control of digestion
    6. Examine the anatomy and physiology of digestive accessory organs: liver, pancreas, gallbladder, salivary glands
  9. Endocrine System (corresponds to learning objectives 13 and 14)
    1. Compare the microscopic anatomy and location of endocrine glands
    2. Classify hormones by chemical structure and modes of action
    3. Link endocrine glands to their respective hormone(s)
    4. Hypothalamic-pituitary actions
    5. Negative feedback mechanisms of hormone secretion
    6. Positive feedback mechanisms of hormone secretion
    7. Autonomic nervous system and hormone secretion
    8. Stress and hormone secretion
    9. Correlate hypo- and hyper- secretions to changes in glandular and target tissue functions
  10. Urinary System (corresponds to learning objectives 15 and 16)
    1. Identify the gross and microscopic structures of the urinary system
    2. Map the flow of filtrates and urine through the urinary system
    3. Differentiate between filtration, reabsorption and secretion in the nephron and collecting ducts
    4. Discuss micturition
    5. Examine hormonal control of urine formation
      1. ADH
      2. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
      3. Atrial naturietic peptide
    6. Bicarbonate reabsorption
    7. Identify factors involved in acid-base balance
      1. Protein buffer system
      2. Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
      3. Hyperventilation and hypoventilation
      4. Kidney excretion of H+ and reabsorption of HCO3-
      5. Renal buffers
    8. Compare forms of alkalosis and acidosis
  11. Reproductive System (corresponds to learning objectives 17 and 18)
    1. Identify gross and anatomical structures of the female reproductive system
    2. Correlate follicle maturation to ovulation and to development of the corpus luteum and corpus albicans
    3. Illustrate the positive and negative feedback mechanisms involved in the ovarian and menstrual cycles
    4. Identify gross and anatomical structures of the male reproductive system
    5. Analyze hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis
    6. Map sperm movement through the male reproductive system
    7. Differentiate between accessory male reproductive glands and their contributions to seminal fluid


Body System(s)Recommended # of Labs
CNS and Sensory Organs 2-3
Blood and Endocrine System 1-2
Blood Vessel, Heart and Cardiovascular Physiology 3-4
Respiratory System 1
Urinary System 2
Digestive System 2-3
Reproductive Systems 1-2

VII.  Methods of Instruction

The course will be presented by way of three hours of lecture-discussion period and a three hour laboratory period each week.  Supplementary audio-visual material and handouts are used.  Appropriate materials and techniques will be introduced in the laboratory.

Course may be taught as face-to-face, hybrid or online course.

Course may be taught as face-to-face, hybrid or online course.

VIII. Course Practices Required

  • Reading:  Textbook, Lab Manual, Handouts.
  • Writing:  Notes, homework assignments, exams.
  • Lab Practices:  3 hour sessions each week.
  • Course may be taught as face-to-face, hybrid or online course.

IX.   Instructional Materials

Note: Current textbook information for each course and section is available on Oakton's Schedule of Classes.

Textbook: Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition, Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn Pearson, 2016.

Laboratory Manual: Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II.Custom Lab Manual, Bluedoor, 2013.

X.    Methods of Evaluating Student Progress

This will vary depending on instructor.  In general, methods of evaluation are based on objective/subjective examinations concerning lecture material and practical examinations concerning laboratory material.  Homework assignments and laboratory write-ups may also be included in final course evaluation.  Final grades are determined on a percentage basis.  Percentages below sixty are not passing.

XI.   Other Course Information

This will vary depending on instructor and may include:

  • Review sessions during and outside class time.
  • Sessions with biology tutors.
  • Required lecture and lab attendance.

If you have a documented learning, psychological, or physical disability you may be entitled to reasonable academic accommodations or services. To request accommodations or services, contact the Access and Disability Resource Center at the Des Plaines or Skokie campus. All students are expected to fulfill essential course requirements. The College will not waive any essential skill or requirement of a course or degree program.

Oakton Community College is committed to maintaining a campus environment emphasizing the dignity and worth of all members of the community, and complies with all federal and state Title IX requirements.

Resources and support for
  • pregnancy-related and parenting accommodations; and
  • victims of sexual misconduct
can be found at

Resources and support for LGBTQ+ students can be found at