Basic Human Anatomy and Physiology

I.     Course Prefix/Number: BIO 114

       Course Name: Basic Human Anatomy and Physiology

       Credits: 3 (3 lecture; 0 lab)

II.    Prerequisite

Prerequisite: 1 year high school biology within last five years or one semester of college biology or the equivalent, with minimum grade of C. Recommended: 1 year high school chemistry within last five years or one semester of college chemistry or the equivalent, with minimum grade of C, and completion of HIT 104 with minimum grade of C.

III.   Course (Catalog) Description

Non-laboratory survey course covers the structure and function of each body system.  Content includes body planes, directional terms, quadrants, body cavities, and the major organs in each body system.

IV.   Learning Objectives

After successfully completing this course, a student should be able to:

  1. Describe mechanisms of homeostasis to regulation of body function.
  2. Describe the structural organization of the human body.
  3. Identify the major body systems.
  4. Utilize the appropriate relational anatomic terms as they apply to body planes, directional terms, quadrants, and body cavities.
  5. Identify the anatomical location of major organs in each body system.
  6. Compare structure and function of the human body across the life span.
  7. Explain the normal function of each body system.

Biology Department Learning Outcomes

By the completion of your biology courses at Oakton, you will have gained the experience to.....

  1. Think critically – identify, define, analyze, interpret, and evaluate ideas, concepts, information, problems, solutions, and consequences. This includes the ability to compute and comprehend quantitative information and to engage in the scientific process.
  2. Communicate – communicate ideas, concepts, and information through written and oral means. Collaborate with people of diverse backgrounds and abilities.
  3. Demonstrate literacy – demonstrate the ability to read critically within content areas. Use technology to locate, evaluate, and communicate data, information, ideas, and concepts. Assess, critique, and select from a variety of information resources.
  4. Demonstrate responsibility – demonstrate an understanding of personal responsibility and ethical behavior in one’s own academic and civic life.

V.    Academic Integrity and Student Conduct

Students and employees at Oakton Community College are required to demonstrate academic integrity and follow Oakton's Code of Academic Conduct. This code prohibits:

• cheating,
• plagiarism (turning in work not written by you, or lacking proper citation),
• falsification and fabrication (lying or distorting the truth),
• helping others to cheat,
• unauthorized changes on official documents,
• pretending to be someone else or having someone else pretend to be you,
• making or accepting bribes, special favors, or threats, and
• any other behavior that violates academic integrity.

There are serious consequences to violations of the academic integrity policy. Oakton's policies and procedures provide students a fair hearing if a complaint is made against you. If you are found to have violated the policy, the minimum penalty is failure on the assignment and, a disciplinary record will be established and kept on file in the office of the Vice President for Student Affairs for a period of 3 years.

Please review the Code of Academic Conduct and the Code of Student Conduct, both located online at

VI.   Sequence of Topics

  1. Introduction: terminology and homeostasis
    1. Differentiate between body planes: sagittal, frontal, transverse, oblique
    2. Compare terms used to describe relationship of body structures to one another.
      1. Medial and lateral.
      2. Anterior and posterior.
      3. Superior and inferior.
      4. Deep and superficial.
      5. Proximal and distal.
    3. Describe Body Cavities
    4. Relate organ location to abdominal quadrants and regions.
    5. Describe functions of mechanisms of homeostasis and how the mechanisms maintain body functions.
  2. Chemistry
    1. Basic inorganic chemistry
    2. Basic biochemistry
  3. Cells
    1. Structure and function
    2. Transport
    3. Mitosis
  4. Tissues
    1. Epithelial
    2. Connective
    3. Muscle
    4. Nervous
    5. Inflammation
  5. The Integumentary System
    1. Anatomy and physiology of skin layers
    2. Skin cancer
    3. Repair of skin injuries
    4. Burns
  6. The Skeletal System
    1. Bone development and growth
      1. Osteopenia and Osteoporosis
    2. Axial and appendicular skeletal bones
      1. Types of fractures
      2. Steps of fracture repair
    3. Articulations
      1. Rheumatism and arthritis
  7. The Muscular System
    1. Characteristics of smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscles
    2. Physiology of muscular contraction
    3. Muscular dystrophy
    4. Tetanus
    5. Hernias
    6. Intramuscular injections
      1. Common muscle sites
  8. The Nervous System
    1. Mechanics of neural impulse; reflex arcs
    2. Synapses
      1. Neurotoxins
    3. Central nervous system
      1. Structure and function of the brain
        1. Alzheimer disease
        2. Seizures
        3. Cerebral Palsy
      2. Structure and function of the spinal cord
        1. Demyelination disorders
        2. Spinal cord injuries
  9. General Senses
    1. Vision
      1. Structure of the eye
      2. Accommodation problems
      3. Cataracts
      4. Visual acuity
    2. Hearing
      1. Structure of the ear
      2. Hearing pathologies
  10. Endocrine
    1. Pituitary
      1. Hormones
      2. Endocrine disorders
    2. Thyroid
      1. Thyroid hormone
      2. Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism
    3. Pancreas
      1. Insulin and glucagon
      2. Diabetes mellitus
  11. Cardiovascular system
    1. Heart
      1. Structure of the heart
      2. Mitral valve prolapsed
      3. Myocardial infarctions
      4. Coronary artery disease
    2. Blood vessels
      1. Systemic and pulmonary circulation
      2. Pulse and Blood Pressure
      3. Shock
      4. Arteriosclerosis
  12. Immunity
    1. Innate immunity
    2. Adaptive immunity
    3. Immune disorders
      1. Autoimmune disorders
      2. AIDS
      3. Allergies
  13. The Respiratory System
    1. Pulmonary anatomy
    2. Ventilation, diffusion, perfusion and gas transport
    3. Pulmonary Function Tests
    4. Pathologies
      1. Pneumonia
      2. Tuberculosis
      3. Emphysema
      4. Lung cancer
  14. The Digestive System
    1. Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract
      1. Mumps
      2. Gastritis and peptic ulcers
      3. Diverticulosis
    2. Physiology of digestion and absorption
      1. Diarrhea and constipation
    3. Accessory digestive organs
      1. Pancreatitis
      2. Liver disease
    4. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
  15. The Urinary System
    1. Nephron and renal anatomy
    2. Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion
    3. Regulation of fluid balance
    4. Regulation of electrolyte balance
    5. Regulation of pH
    6. Pathologies
      1. Hemodialysis
      2. Urinary tract infections
  16. The Reproductive System
    1. Male reproductive system
      1. Prostatitis
    2. Female reproductive system
      1. Pelvic inflammatory disease
      2. Breast cancer
    3. Sexually transmitted disease
    4. Birth control strategies

VII.  Methods of Instruction

This course will be presented by way of three hours of lecture-discussion period.  Supplementary audio-visual material and handouts are used. 

Course may be taught as face-to-face, hybrid or online course.

VIII. Course Practices Required

  • Reading: text book, lab manual, handouts
  • Writing:  notes, homework assignments, exams

IX.   Instructional Materials

Note: Current textbook information for each course and section is available on Oakton's Schedule of Classes.

Textbook: Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11th Edition, Elaine N. Marieb Pearson, 2015.

X.    Methods of Evaluating Student Progress

This will vary depending on instructor.  In general, methods of evaluation are based on objective/subjective examinations concerning lecture material and practical examinations concerning laboratory material.  Homework assignments may also be included in final course evaluation.  Final grades are determined on a percentage basis.  Percentages below sixty are not passing.

XI.   Other Course Information

This will vary depending on instructor and may include:

  • Review sessions during and outside class time.
  • Sessions with biology tutors.
  • Required lecture attendance.
  • Course may be taught as face-to-face, media-based, hybrid or online course.

If you have a documented learning, psychological, or physical disability you may be entitled to reasonable academic accommodations or services. To request accommodations or services, contact the Access and Disability Resource Center at the Des Plaines or Skokie campus. All students are expected to fulfill essential course requirements. The College will not waive any essential skill or requirement of a course or degree program.

Oakton Community College is committed to maintaining a campus environment emphasizing the dignity and worth of all members of the community, and complies with all federal and state Title IX requirements.

Resources and support for
  • pregnancy-related and parenting accommodations; and
  • victims of sexual misconduct
can be found at

Resources and support for LGBTQ+ students can be found at

Electronic video and/or audio recording is not permitted during class unless the student obtains written permission from the instructor. In cases where recordings are allowed, such content is restricted to personal use only. Any distribution of such recordings is strictly prohibited. Personal use is defined as use by an individual student for the purpose of studying or completing course assignments.

For students who have been approved for audio and/or video recording of lectures and other classroom activities as a reasonable accommodation by Oakton’s Access Disabilities Resource Center (ADRC), applicable federal law requires instructors to permit those recordings. Such recordings are also limited to personal use. Any distribution of such recordings is strictly prohibited.

Violation of this policy will result in disciplinary action through the Code of Student Conduct.